Poultry Production in Nigeria: Step by Step Guide

poultry production in nigeria

Poultry production in Nigeria is one of the most profitable business ideas in Nigeria especially when it is managed properly.  With over 160 million citizens who consume poultry products daily, poultry production is a business niche still waiting to be explored.

The demand for eggs and meat is so high that the demand far outweighs the supply. A few year ago, Nigeria’s poultry market was valued at over N51bn. One of the major reasons that make poultry production in Nigeria a profitable business venture is that chickens grow fast. Unlike other animals, a chicken is ready for market within 28 weeks after birth.

poultry production in nigeria

This might account for reasons why poultry producers collect loans from financial institutions and invest it within 30-40 weeks, and start paying back the loan through the profit realized from sales. Some statistics and reports have indicated that poultry production in Nigeria has made a lot of entrepreneurs millionaires.

Hence, if you are a newbie interested in exploring poultry production in Nigeria, this article will take you through the nitty-gritty of achieving a successful poultry production. No matter your educational or financial background, anyone can engage in poultry production in Nigeria. You can start small and expand as the business grows. Try to keep the birds out of the house, or as my friend once asked after the hens got into his living room “what gets urine smell out of carpet!?” Better to have a coop for them to keep that smell away from your private home.

The following are necessary steps to take in achieving a successful poultry production in Nigeria.

Step 1: Draw up a Business Plan

There’s no business without a good business plan.  A business plan is a like a map that gives you directions to where you are going. Keep in mind that to achieve a successful poultry production in Nigeria, your business plan must include the type of bird of bird you want to select for your poultry farm. Which one would you pick? Layers, cockerels, hatchers or broilers?

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Step 2: Identify Your Area of Interest

It’s not possible for you to be a jack of all trade. You have to choose a particular niche. To make it simpler for you, examine some of the dominant niches in poultry production in Nigeria:

  • Layers breeding: refers to egg production
  • Hatchery: breeding chickens for the sole purpose of hatching new chicks.
  • Broilers breeding: means chicken meat production
  • Cockerel breeding: this refers to the breeding of cockerels for meat production. Although they grow slower than other chicken breeds, cockerels easily adapt to almost all types of environment
  • Poultry feed: this refers to producing feeds for other poultry farmers.

Quick Tip: if you like, you can decide to breed broilers, cockerels and layers at the same time or independently. However, hatchery and feed production are best done independently.

Step 3: Select a Suitable Land

Acquiring land is arguably the most expensive part of setting up a poultry farm. For a medium sized poultry farm, a plot of land of 120 by 60 sq meters will do just fine. Also, you must take into consideration that the size of land depends on the number of birds you want to raise for poultry production in Nigeria.

Since the odor from bird droppings stink, it is recommended that your poultry farm is far from residential areas. Also, make sure the environment is fresh and pollution free. While selecting the land, keep note of indices such as a constant supply of water, nearness to the market, adequate transportation facilities, non-availability of predators and animals, etc.

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Step 4: Capital and Investment Requirements

Having sorted out location, the next step is to write down a detailed plan of the capital and investment requirements necessary for your poultry farm to thrive. Like any other agribusiness venture, the bigger you want to venture, the bigger the investment.

Here’s a breakdown of what to expect based on the plan you intend to start with.

  1. Small-scale poultry production in Nigeria (of about 50 birds) will require about N70, 000 to start.
  2. Medium scale poultry production in Nigeria will require land, housing and other equipment (1-2 plots of land with about 100-500 birds) will require about N500, 000 to N5 million naira to start.
  3. Large scale or capital intensive poultry production in Nigeria will require about N10 million to start. This is because it will require planning and professionalism, more detailed business plan, employment of farm personnel, construction of facilities, etc.

Step 5: Buy Poultry Items/Equipment

Other poultry items/equipment to purchase include: feeders, drinkers, perches, nests, crates, cages, coops, incubator, heaters or brooders, lighting system and waste disposal system.

Step 6: Housing System

You can’t begin a successful poultry production in Nigeria without proper housing. The housing system you pick solely depends on the poultry breeds and the farming methods. While building the ideal house for your birds, take the following tips into consideration.

  • A poultry house must be well ventilated. Proper ventilation keeps the birds productive and healthy.
  • Build the house in the north wing of the farm to face south.
  • Provide an adequate system to ensure sufficient amount of fresh air and light into the house.
  • When making numerous houses, ensure that the gap between each house is about 40 feet.
  • Clean the farm and house properly before introducing the chicks.
  • If you are making a deep litter, affordable materials like wooden or rice bran can be used. Ensure you clean it properly.
  • Make sure that the birds are adequately protected from predators, insects and animals.
  • Ensure the feeding and watering troughs are in proper distance from each other depending on the number of birds and farming system. Make sure you clean these equipments regularly.
  • Make sure the house is located in a serene and pollution free environment.
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Step 7: Feeding

Make sure to always provide sufficient amount of food according to the number and age of birds. Alongside feeding, ensure that there’s sufficient supply of clean and fresh water.

No poultry production business in Nigeria is successful if its birds are not fed with high-quality foods. Remember, a well-fed bird is a healthy and productive one.

Step 8: Care and Management

Poultry birds are very vulnerable to diseases. They suffer from various fungal, bacterial, viral and parasitic diseases. Ensure you vaccinate your birds timely in order to keep them disease-free. In case of a disease outbreak, consult your vet as soon as possible.

Step 9: Marketing

No poultry production in Nigeria is deemed successful if there are no marketing strategies in place. Since there’s a huge demand for poultry products, there is already an established market system. Just ensure you tell people about your farm and offer incentives to drive customers to purchase your products. When you’ve got high quality products and sell them at an affordable price, customers will throng your poultry for your dead birds.


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