Human migration is the movement of people from one place to another either from rural to urban or urban to rural with the intentions of settling temporarily or permanently in the new location.
Rural migration (also referred to as rural-urban migration) is the movement of people from villages or the countryside to cities or towns, rural migration in Nigeria occurs as a result of prevailing conditions, such as high level of poverty, low standard of living, lack of access to infrastructure such as good schools, hospitals/healthcare centres, etc prevalent in the rural areas.
The factors or reasons for rural migration in Nigeria can be divided into two categories. They are the PUSH or PULL factors. The PUSH factors are those conditions that compel inhabitants in the rural areas to leave the village for the cities. The PULL factors, on the other hand, are those things/ items present in the urban areas that lure people to migrate from the rural areas.
Reasons for rural migration in Nigeria (rural-urban migration)
1).Inadequate social amenities and facility in rural areas: Absence of social infrastructures which include pipe-born water, electricity, good roads, school, hospitals, recreational centres among others compel people to leave the rural areas. Therefore, these social amenities which are present in the urban areas encourage rural to urban migration.
Many people migrate to urban areas to get a better job. There are lots of meaningful employments present in urban areas that rural residents might not have access to in their locale.
Many people migrate from rural to urban areas to get supporters. Also, a person might move from the rural area to urban areas considered as a point of political activities, in order to fully participate in politics.
4). Quality education:
People migrate from rural areas to urban settlements in search of sound and quality education. This is because most teachers in rural areas have little or no experience in teaching.
5). Provision of recreational facilities:
Recreational facilities include swimming pools, cinema houses, amusements parks, stadia, etc. The presence of recreational facilities in the cities facilitates the migration of rural residents (especially the youths) to cities thereby encouraging rural to urban migration.
6). The luxuries of the urban world attract the people of rural areas because most rural activities are based on agriculture. Hence the city luxuries encourages rural to urban migration
An agriculturist needs are simple. They revolve around domestic needs only, whereas, in urban areas, everything revolves around technology that makes life easier.
7). Higher Education:
The need for higher education compels many people (especially the youths) to migrate to urban areas where the majority of the country’s higher institutions like universities, polytechnics, and colleges of education are located.
Newly married ladies whose husbands live in urban areas leave their villages to go settle with their husbands.
9). Natural disasters:
Natural disasters like an outbreak of diseases, erosion, earthquake, famine, etc, might lead to an increase in rural-urban migration.
If a person is ostracized or stigmatized by members of his community, a better option might be to migrate to urban areas where no one might know him.